WEEK 3 DATE:…………………………………… SUBJECT: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. CLASS: JS 1 TOPIC: TYPES OF AGRICULTURE.

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WEEK 3
DATE:……………………………………
SUBJECT: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE.
CLASS: JS 1

TOPIC: TYPES OF AGRICULTURE.
Sub–Topic
1: Types of Agriculture
     There
are two types of agriculture. They include:
       
Subsistence Agriculture
       
Commercial Agriculture.
SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
:
This is the type of agriculture
whereby a farmer produces food enough to feed himself and his family, with
little or more for sale. Whatever he sells serves as income to the family.
Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture
       
Produces purposely for family consumption.
       
Small land is used for production
       
Farmer and his family members do the
labour.
       
Simple farm tools like hoe, cutlass,
spade, rake etc. are used.
       
Many crops are planted on the same
plot. e.g. maize, melon, yam, vegetables. In other words, he practices mixed
cropping system.
       
Fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides
are not used commonly.
       
Usually owned by peasant farmers.
       
No specialization on any particular
crop.
       
Small capital is needed by the
farmer.
Commercial
Agriculture
This is the type of agriculture
whereby a farmer produces purposely for sale. His desire is to make maximum
profit. It is therefore a profit-oriented venture/enterprise.
Characteristics
of Commercial Agriculture
       
Produce purposely for sale to make
maximum profit.
       
Large area of land is used as a
result large-scale production is made.
       
Hired and skilled workers are used
for labour.
       
Modern farm, implements are used.
       
Mono-cropping system is usually
practiced e.g. only maize or rice because of the use of farm machines in farm
operation.
       
Fertilizers, herbicides pesticides
and many other chemicals are used
       
It is usually owned government or
limited companies.
       
It leads to specialization on
certain types of crops.
       
Large capital is involved.
EVALUATION
·       
Define Subsistence Agriculture
·       
List (4) four characteristics of
subsistence agriculture.
·       
Define commercial agriculture.
·       
List the characteristics of
commercial agriculture.
Sub
– Topic 2: Difference between Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture
.
    
SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE
COMMERCIAL
AGRICULTURE
     
Produces purposely for
family consumption
     
Small land is required
for production
     
Simple farm tools e.g.
cutlass, hoe, axe, spade, rake, watering can etc.
     
Many crops are planted on
the same plot (mixed cropping system) which does not encourage mechanization
Family labour is used
      .      
Small capital is involved
     
It is own by peasant
farmers
     
Fertilizers, chemicals
e.g. herbicides, pesticides are not often used.
    
Produces purposely for
sale to make profit
    
Large area of land is
required for production
    
Modern farm machinery
e.g. Bulldozer, tractors, planters, combined harvesters, air craft etc.
    
Only one crop is planted
on same land which encourages mechanization
    
Hired and skilled workers
are used for labour
    
Large capital is involved
    
Own by Governments or
Limited Companies.
    
Herbicides, Pesticides
and many other chemicals are used.
EVALUATION
       
State five differences between
subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture.
Weekend
Assignment
    
Junior secondary Agriculture
(workbook 1)byAnthony.Youdeowei et-al pages 3 & 4
Pre-reading
Assignment
Read the forms of agriculture using
Junior secondary Agriculture, book1
REFERENCE
TEXTS
:
    
Intensive Agricultural Science for
J.S.S. 1, 2 & 3 by E. U. Okoro.
    
Essentials of Agricultural Science
for J.S.S. & Colleges by Earnest ChukwudiAnie.
    
Agricultural Science for JSS (Upper
Basic Education) by L. A. Are et al.
    
Prescribed Agricultural Science for
J.S.S. by S. E. Omoruyi et al.

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